Lesson Planning

What does “Preparation” mean?
“Preparation” means working out what you want to do in a lesson, why you want to do it and how you are going to do it. It does not mean copying what is there in the Teacher’s Book, as some teachers might think, but it means thinking through the stages of the lesson, trying to link them, working out what the point of each stage is and writing down enough notes to help you remember what you thought of.
The first step in lesson planning is for the teacher to determine what it is that he/ she wants his pupils to learn. The second step is the carrying out of an instructional analysis of the learning task. This type of analysis should help the teacher to decide the various activities pupils will have to catty out to be able to achieve his/ her objectives. Finally, the teacher must prepare test items that measure what the students have been taught.
The functions of writing lesson plans
  1. Writing down what you expect the students to be able to do by the end of the lesson, and what you intend to do to make that possible, helps you to think logically through the stages in relation to the time you have available.
  2. Having something to refer to in the lesson helps keep you on target.
  3. A lesson plan acts as a record of what the class has done and might form the basis for a future lesson plan with a similar class after being suitably amended.
  4. Planning ensures that there is some system and balance in the student’s learning.
  5. Planning also ensures that the teacher can answer questions accurately, and can provide explanations when required.
  6. The knowledge that they are well-prepared gives many teachers confidence.

The components and stages of effective lesson plans

The organisation and content of your lesson plan might be affected by:

  • the content of the lesson,
  • the kind of material you are using,
  • the nature and level of the students in the class, and
  • your familiarity and relationship with the class.

Therefore, it is important to consider the characteristics of the learners when preparing a lesson plan i.e. their age, their liguistic, cultural background and their degree of motivation for learning English. It is considered that the classroom teacher is a better judge of the needs of his or her pupils than any textbook writer.

Lesson plans are usually written for the teacher himself and may be brief. However, a lesson plan should be drawn up under the following headings:

  1. The language you intend to present, practise, revise or focus on in a text.
  2. The activities that the students will be involved in.

Although a teacher may have planned a lesson in great detail, he also needs to be sensitive to demands which arise in the lesson. A sensitive and flexible teacher may well deviate from an original plan in response to changing circumstances or learner needs, with positive results. As a matter of fact, there will be many occasions when the teacher and the class depart from what was intended.

A good teacher should make a habit of having a reserve activity ready as part of his/ her regular lesson plan in case of extra time. Similarly, note in advance which components of the lesson you will sacrifice if you find yourself with too little time for everything.

I think I have to stop at this point. In my next article, I will try to tackle the new trend in “Preparation” and “Lesson Planning”.


  • Hamad El Nil El Fadil. A Course In Effective Teaching For Teachers Of English.
  • Martin Parrot. Tasks For Language Teachers
  • Mary Finocchiaro. English As A Second/ Foreign Language.




How to Become an Effective Teacher

It is taken for granted that the teacher is the most important component in any teaching learning situation. To be a successful and effective teacher, you need to be aware of the challenges that a teacher typically face. Some of these challenges are:
  • students who come to school unprepared to learn
  • students who are unmotivated and disruptive
  • students with attention-deficit disorders
  • students who are verbally or physically abusive
  • students who are openly hostile to your efforts
  • administrators who will not back you up
  • lack of funding, lack of books and lack of supplies
  • parents who disregard the importance of learning

It is believed that the “crisis in education” is not only about curriculum, competence or community support. it is also about too many teachers being overwhelmed by the challenges. It is about too many teachers losing the belief that they can make a difference in the lives of their students. It is about too many excellent, committed teachers burning out.

But you can overcome the challenges. You can make a difference. Always bear in mind that:

  • Beliefs are powerful.
  • Success is a function of what we believe to be true about our capabilities.
  • Through the choices you make, you shape your destiny.
  • Effectiveness is a habit you can learn.
  • High performers are teachers who bring out the best in their students, who rise abobe the challenges to go home at the end of the day with a great deal of satisfaction, even gratification from their job.

High-performing teachers all share the same essential attitudes and behaviours:

  • They have a mission. They know exactly what they want to accomplish in the classroom each and every day.
  • They have positive beliefs in their ability to work successfully with students and to make a difference in their lives.
  • They recognize that the choices they make have an impact on their own success.
  • They have well-developed problem-solving skills that empower them to create and implement plans for overcoming challenges.
  • They have learned how to build positive relationships with students, no matter how unmotivated or hostile those students might be.
  • They have also learned how to build positive realationships with parents in recognition of the crucial role of the home environment in education.
  • They maitain a positive attitude, understanding that a negative attitude impedes students’ learning.
  • They understand the necessity of a support network, and seek out friends and colleagues who are positive and proactive.
  • They have learned how to plan their time and effort to make the best of their skills and resources.

What change is all about:

  • The more you practise new habits, the more you practise focusing on new ways of thinking and new ways of doing things, the more comfortable you become with them.
  • The power is within you to become a more effective teacher. It is up to you to choose to use that power. You owe it to your students to make that choice – and most of all you owe it to yourself.

Reference:The High-Performing Teacher” by Lee Canter and Marlene Canter