Basics of Teaching and Evaluation and Choosing the Appropriate Teaching Strategy

Phases of Instruction:

  1. The Planning Phase:

In this phase, the teacher has to think carefully about the following:

  1. Learning objectives:

Writing SMART Objectives

  • Objectives have to be written from the point of view of the learners i.e. what we expect them to be able to say or do by the end of the lesson.
  • Objectives will have to be written in terms of observable & measurable changes in the learner’s behaviour.
  • When writing objectives,  always use “Action Verbs” and avoid using “Non-Action Verbs”.

Students learning styles:

People learn in different ways. The most common learning styles are:

  • Teaching Techniques and Strategies:
  • Lecture – Explaining
  • Group Discussion
  • Brainstorming
  • Role-Play
  • Jigsaw
  • Concept Map/Sketch
  • Debate
  • Cooperative learning
  • Problem solving
  • Field trips (tours)

Choosing the appropriate teaching strategy:

No matter how diverse and different modern teaching strategies are,

  • The quality and nature of the educational session,
  • Its purpose and content,
  • The level of the learners and
  • The nature of each classroom environment

remain the determinant of any strategy we use. This is, of course, up to the teacher, as long as he is quite aware of the requirements of his class.

Criteria for selecting the appropriate teaching strategy:

The strategy should:

  • Be consistent with the learning outcomes.
  • Be appropriate for the educational content.
  • Be suitable for the learners’ level.
  • Lead to active learning.
  • Take into account the potential of the educational institution.

What Teachers Should Do When Planning:

Teachers should:

  • Take lesson planning seriously
  • Go through the Teacher’s Guide and Unit Plans to have a clear idea about the recommended procedures for teaching the various types of lessons.
  • Benefit from the lesson plans recommended in the Teacher’s Guide when planning.
  • Take the different phases of instruction into consideration when planning
  • Think of the different phases     of instruction in relation to the objectives of the lesson they are to teach
  • Consider the anticipated problems and their possible solutions
  • Prepare suitable visual aids that can facilitate their work and make their presentation easy, interesting and understandable
  •  Identify clear teacher’s and student’s roles
  •  Identify tasks for formative and summative assessment 

The Pre-instructional phase (Orientation):

The objectives of orientation:

What should be considered when planning for orientation?

Orientation should:

  1. Be interesting and related to lesson objectives
  2. Help draw students’ attention
  3. Prepare students to achieve the objectives
  4. Provide students with the prerequisites necessary for understanding the new stimulus
  5. Arouse students’ interest in the lesson

The Instructional phase (Presentation):

What to think of during “Presentation”:

“Presentation” can be distinguished and related to objectives due to:

  • Good preparation
  • Awareness of objectives
  • Appropriateness & variation of teaching methods and strategies
  • Active students’ participation
  • Availability of useful visual aids
  • Caring for differentiation and students’ learning styles

The Practice phase (Formative evaluation):

Practice becomes effective if it:                                                         

  • Is well planned
  • Is varied, graded and related to the lesson objectives
  • Is challenging
  • Encourages critical thinking
  • Cares for differentiation
  • Is well planned
  • Is varied, graded and related to the lesson objectives
  • Is challenging
  • Encourages critical thinking
  • Cares for differentiation

The Assessment phase (Summative assessment):

Requirements and benefits of summative evaluation:

Summative assessment is often effective when:

  • It is carefully planned
  • Teachers allocate enough time for carrying it out
  • The teacher collects students’ answers to mark them
  • The teacher takes decisions regarding the students’ performance (Future planning)

The following is a mind map summing up all the main points discussed in our training session:


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